In many parts of Canada, the final month of fall started off feeling a lot more like winter.

At one point early Thursday morning, 11 of Canada’s 13 provincial and territorial capitals were experiencing below-freezing temperatures. The exceptions were St. John’s, N.L. – which just barely snuck above freezing at 0.1 C – and Victoria, where it was a balmy 8 C.

Record-breaking cold was reported in dozens of communities across Eastern Canada, including Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal. Environment Canada said more than 20 communities in Ontario experienced temperatures Thursday morning colder than they had ever recorded on Nov. 22.

A much older record was broken in Ottawa, where thermometers at the Canadian Department of Agriculture plunged to -18.7 C – more than four degrees colder than the previous Nov. 22 low, which was set in 1895.

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